Useful Papers


Compared to other crops such as wheat and maize, research on cassava is limited. This is mainly due to cassava's status as a ‘poor man's crop'. The fact is, however, that it is a sturdy and relatively simple crop to grow.

For information about cutting-edge cultivation practices, refer to:

For information about small-scale framing activities:


Cassava has a wide range of applications. It can be processed into food stuffs such as flour, dried and crushed into pellets for livestock feed or made into an industrial starch. Different regions tend to use cassava for different applications. Africa's consumption of cassava is generally as a stable crop, North America and Europe's usage is predominately for livestock feed and Asia's usage is for feed and industrial starches. An interesting development that will significantly affect the demand for cassava is the movement towards biofuel.

For a general overview of cassava's various uses:

For regional-specific information:
Sub-Saharan Africa:

Papers on the biofuels industry:


Traditionally cassava was a thinly traded commodity because it was regarded as a poor man's crop, grown by subsistence farmers on marginal lands. Rising prices of substitute products due to a host of factors, one being the movement towards biofuels, have sparked renewed interest in cassava. This has led to a wealth of research on cassava's properties, uncovering the crop's multifaceted usages. This will not only increase the volume and value of trade but also the basket of countries trading cassava.

General information:

Trade in Africa:

Trade in Asia:

Regulatory issues

Tariffs and non-tariffs barriers play a role in shaping trade patterns. Countries use tariff barriers and non-tariffs barriers to protect domestic farmers from imported goods. Tariffs increase the price of imported goods compared to domestic goods, thereby giving domestic producers a relative price advantage. The EU's tariff rates can be accessed at TARIC and the US' at the US Department of Agriculture.

Non-tariff barriers usually take the form of strict sanitary and phytosanitary measures or adherence to certification measures, such as 1SO 9000 standards. Non-tariff barriers increase a producer's costs throughout the supply chain due to the complexity of the processes that he/she must adhere to and the bureaucratic cost of ensuring that procedures are documented.  The following articles mostly cover non-tariff barriers as they have a greater influence on the trade of high-value agricultural (HVA) products. 

Information on the EU market:

Information traceability issues in the US market:

Information on labeling issues in the US market:

For a comparative study on the US and EU's tariff measures:

Way forward

The papers below are case studies that showcase a number of countries' initiatives to create critical mass in their domestic industries by forming associations to pool scarce resources. 

Information on marketing activities and creating industrial strategies:


Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR),
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD),
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA),