Useful Papers

Production

Compared to other crops such as wheat and maize, research on cassava is limited. This is mainly due to cassava's status as a ‘poor man's crop'. The fact is, however, that it is a sturdy and relatively simple crop to grow.

For information about cutting-edge cultivation practices, refer to:
http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/biotechnology/cbn/sixth_international_meeting/Posters-PDF/Ps-9/cassava-propagation-roosevelt.pdf
www.dip.go.ug/materials/english/Cassava%20production%20and%20utilisation%20manual.PDF

For information about small-scale framing activities:
www.ciat.cgiar.org/.../cbn/sixth_international_meeting/Posters-PDF/Ps-9/cassava-propagation-roosevelt.pdf

Usage

Cassava has a wide range of applications. It can be processed into food stuffs such as flour, dried and crushed into pellets for livestock feed or made into an industrial starch. Different regions tend to use cassava for different applications. Africa's consumption of cassava is generally as a stable crop, North America and Europe's usage is predominately for livestock feed and Asia's usage is for feed and industrial starches. An interesting development that will significantly affect the demand for cassava is the movement towards biofuel.

For a general overview of cassava's various uses:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5287e/y5287e00.htm

For regional-specific information:
Asia: ftp://iserver.ciat.cgiar.org/webciat/asia_cassava_pdf/contents.pdf
Africa: http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0154e/A0154E00.HTM#TOC
Sub-Saharan Africa: http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/j1255e/j1255e00.htm#Contents

Papers on the biofuels industry:
www.ats.agr.gc.ca/asean/4299_e.htm
www.usda.gov/oce/forum/2007%20Speeches/PDF%20PPT/K%20Ohga.pdf
www.gsm.mq.edu.au/facultyhome/john.mathews/a%20Biofuels%20manifesto%20%209%20oct%2006.pdf

Trade

Traditionally cassava was a thinly traded commodity because it was regarded as a poor man's crop, grown by subsistence farmers on marginal lands. Rising prices of substitute products due to a host of factors, one being the movement towards biofuels, have sparked renewed interest in cassava. This has led to a wealth of research on cassava's properties, uncovering the crop's multifaceted usages. This will not only increase the volume and value of trade but also the basket of countries trading cassava.

General information:
ftp://iserver.ciat.cgiar.org/webciat/asia_cassava_pdf/new_products.pdf

Trade in Africa:
www.fao.org/docrep/009/J7927e/j7927e05.htm
www.ifpri.org/events/conferences/2003/120103/papers/paper9.pdf

Trade in Asia:
www.ciat.cgiar.org/downloads/pdf/cabi_07ch4.pdf

Regulatory issues

Tariffs and non-tariffs barriers play a role in shaping trade patterns. Countries use tariff barriers and non-tariffs barriers to protect domestic farmers from imported goods. Tariffs increase the price of imported goods compared to domestic goods, thereby giving domestic producers a relative price advantage. The EU's tariff rates can be accessed at TARIC and the US' at the US Department of Agriculture.

Non-tariff barriers usually take the form of strict sanitary and phytosanitary measures or adherence to certification measures, such as 1SO 9000 standards. Non-tariff barriers increase a producer's costs throughout the supply chain due to the complexity of the processes that he/she must adhere to and the bureaucratic cost of ensuring that procedures are documented.  The following articles mostly cover non-tariff barriers as they have a greater influence on the trade of high-value agricultural (HVA) products. 

Information on the EU market:
http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo/cbi/index.php?action=showDetails&id=1080
http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo/cbi/?action=showDetails&id=2584
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/itd/eu-rta.pd

Information traceability issues in the US market:
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer830/aer830.pdf
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/agoutlook/jan2002/ao288f.pdf

Information on labeling issues in the US market:
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/WRS04/jan04/wrs0402/

For a comparative study on the US and EU's tariff measures: 
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/WRS04/Apr04/WRS040501/WRS040501.pdf
http://www.cgiar.org
http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/itd/gspandsdt-readings.pdf

Way forward

The papers below are case studies that showcase a number of countries' initiatives to create critical mass in their domestic industries by forming associations to pool scarce resources. 

Information on marketing activities and creating industrial strategies:
www.doa.go.th/fieldcrops/res/0949-3.pdf
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y5548e/y5548e00.pdf
ftp://iserver.ciat.cgiar.org/webciat/asia_cassava_pdf/contents.pdf
http://idrinfo.idrc.ca/Archive/ReportsINTRA/pdfs/v4n4e/108831.pdf

Associations

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), http://www.cgiar.org
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), ifad@ifad.org
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA@cgiar.org