Useful Papers

Production and consumption

The type of production practices a farmer country engages in and the type of fish a population consumes are largely affected by initial resource endowments. As a result it is difficult to make sweeping market generalisations about the industry’s production methods and consumers’ preferences. Therefore the best approach is to understand the market is to take a regional and then country-specific slant.

Information on Africa
Information on Asia
Information on the EU25
Information on Sub-Saharan Africa
Information on North America
Industry forecast
Trade in fish products is growing exponentially and developing countries’ share of global trade has steadily increased since the 1990s. 

Regulatory issues

Tariffs and non-tariffs barriers play a role in shaping trade patterns. Countries use tariff barriers and non-tariffs barriers to protect domestic farmers from imported goods. Tariffs increase the price of imported goods compared to domestic goods, thereby giving domestic producers a relative price advantage. The EU’s tariff rates can be accessed at TARIC and the US’ at the US Department of Agriculture.

Non-tariff barriers usually take the form of strict sanitary and phytosanitary measures or adherence to certification measures, such as 1SO 9000 standards. Non-tariff barriers increase a producer’s costs throughout the supply chain due to the complexity of the processes that he/she must adhere to and the bureaucratic cost of ensuring that procedures are documented.  The following articles mostly cover non-tariff barriers as they have a greater influence on the trade of high-value agricultural (HVA) products. 

Information on the EU market

Information traceability issues in the US market

Information on labelling issues in the US market

For a comparative study on the US and EU’s tariff measures

Information on developing countries’ preferential treatment: 

Way forward

The papers below are case studies that showcase a number of countries’ initiatives to create critical mass in their domestic industries by forming associations to pool scarce resources. 


Southern African sub-office of Infopeche, Erik Hempel, Private Bag X 13355, Kenya House, Robert Mugabe Avenue,, 4th Floor, Windhoek, Namibia
Aquaculture Council of Western Australia (ACWA)
Aquacultural Engineering Society
Australian Aquaculture Centre
California Aquaculture Association
Canadian Aquaculture Industry Alliance
Federation of European Aquaculture Producers
Global Aquaculture Alliance
Maine Aquaculture Innovation Center (MAIC)