Useful Papers


The following papers provide information about technologies that affect the cost base and efficiency of production techniques. 

For information about cutting-edge cultivation practices, refer to:

For information about harvesting activities, refer to:

Small-scale farming

This paper discusses the challenges facing small-scale farmers and suggests ways to overcome them.


The demand for capsicum consumption will be driven by consumers’ appetite for processed foods. For farmers to tap into this market it is important to understand consumers’ preferences as they will affect the type of products produced by the food industry. 

For information on processed foods, see:

For information on the demand for high-value foods, see:

For information on retail developments in Asia, visit:

For information on the EU’s industrial food preparation market, visit:


Identifying trade patterns provides one with information to map products to markets.

Information on the EU:

Information on the US:

The restructuring of the food industry has affected the manner in which a product is marketed, distributed and packaged. There is a trend towards direct marketing between large retailers and producers. An important issue is the steps small farmers should take to break into retailers’ global supply chains. Articles in this section under markets for small-scale farming discuss this topic. 

Information about the prospects for African farmers:

Information about global value chains:

Information about logistics:


Tariffs and non-tariffs barriers play a role in shaping trade patterns.  Countries use tariffs barriers and non-tariffs barriers to protect domestic farmers from imported goods. Tariffs increase the price of imported goods compared to domestic goods, thereby giving domestic producers a relative price advantage.  The EU’s tariffs rates can be accessed at TARIC and the US’ at the United States Department of Agriculture.  Non-tariff barriers usually take the form of strict sanitary and phytosanitary measures or adherence to certification measures as such as 1SO 9000 standards. Non-tariff barriers increase a producer’s costs throughout the supply chain due to the complexity of the processes that he/she must adhere too and the bureaucratic cost of ensuring that procedures are documented.  The following articles mostly cover non-tariff barriers as they have a greater influence on the trade of high value agricultural products. 

Information on the EU market:

Information traceability issues in the US market:

Information on labeling issues in the US market:

For a comparative study on the US and EU’s tariff measures:

Information on developing countries’ preferential treatment:

Way forward

The papers below are case studies that showcase other countries’ initiatives to create critical mass in their domestic industries by forming associations to pool scarce resources. 

Information on marketing activities:

Information on creating strategies:


University of Florida:
Southern African New Crop Research Association:
Chile Pepper Institute Homepage:
Global Agribusiness Information Network:
The Office of Biorenewables Programs:
University of California, Davis
Purdue University: