Useful Papers




The following papers provide information about technologies that affect the cost base and efficiency of production techniques:

For information about cutting-edge cultivation practices, refer to:

For information about harvesting activities, refer to:



The demand for capsicum consumption will be driven by consumers' appetite for processed foods. For farmers to tap into this market it is important to understand consumers' preferences as they will affect the type of products produced by the food industry. 

For information on consumption:  

Information on markets and products available in those markets:

For information on retail developments in Asia, visit:

For information on the EU's industrial food preparation market, visit:

Information on health issues:

For information on prices:



Identifying trade patterns provides one with information to map products to markets, see:

Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI), EU Market Survey 2005.

Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI), EU Market Brief: Essential Oils 2005.

Information on the EU and US:

Information on the US:

The restructuring of the food industry has affected the manner in which a product is marketed, distributed and packaged. There is a trend towards direct marketing between large retailers and producers. An important issue is the steps small farmers should take to break into retailers' global supply chains. Articles in this section under markets for small-scale farming discuss this topic, see:

Information about the prospects for African farmers:


Tariffs and non-tariffs barriers play a role in shaping trade patterns.  Countries use tariffs barriers and non-tariffs barriers to protect domestic farmers from imported goods. Tariffs increase the price of imported goods compared to domestic goods, thereby giving domestic producers a relative price advantage.  The EU's tariffs rates can be accessed at TARIC and the US' at the United States Department of Agriculture.  Non-tariff barriers usually take the form of strict sanitary and phytosanitary measures or adherence to certification measures as such as 1SO 9000 standards. Non-tariff barriers increase a producer's costs throughout the supply chain due to the complexity of the processes that he/she must adhere too and the bureaucratic cost of ensuring that procedures are documented.  The following articles mostly cover non-tariff barriers as they have a greater influence on the trade of high value agricultural products. 

Information on the EU market:

Information on the Canadian market:

Information traceability issues in the US market:

For a comparative study on the US and EU's tariff measures:

Information of tariffs in China:

Information of tariffs in Japan:

Information of tariffs in Japan:

Trade Contact and Information

General - Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa (

Bio Nile

A Fakhry or

Pirimiti Ltd, Blantyre

Hortiflora, Blantyre

Zanzgerm (Ginger, tumeric, pepper).


Esco Uganda Ltd. Vanilla


Meadowsweet Herbs

Organic World